V. INSTALLATION AND WORKMANSHIP
5:01 SUB-GRADE AND BASE PREPARATION — Excavation for construction of
curbs, sidewalk and driveway entrances shall be performed as necessary to
the required subgrade elevation. Sub-grade shall consist of undisturbed
soil or approved fill material machine compacted to form a firm, stable
subgrade. Prior to excavating for curb construction in areas where the
proposed curb line abuts existing street or roadway pavement, the
Contractor shall neatly sawcut the existing pavement no more than eight
inches from the proposed face of curb. All curbs must be constructed on
undisturbed or compacted soil; no stone shall be used for leveling.
Sidewalks and driveway entrances shall be constructed on a compacted stone
base, minimum four inches depth of PennDOT No. 2A crushed aggregate placed
on the previously prepared sub-grade.
5:02 FORMS — All proposed concrete installations, either new
construction or reconstruction, shall be formed. Constructing curbs,
sidewalks, or driveway entrances without forms is prohibited. All forms
shall be made of steel or wood, and shall be smooth, free from warp and
sufficiently rigid to resist springing out of shape. All forms shall
extend for the full depth of the curb or sidewalk to be installed. Forms
shall be firmly held in place by stakes or rods and braces adequate in
dimension and sufficient in number to prevent movement and to withstand
the pressure of the concrete. Steel forms shall be thoroughly cleaned and
oiled and wood forms thoroughly cleaned and moistened prior to pouring
concrete therein, and all forms shall remain in place at least 24 hours
after completion of the pouring.
5:03.1 — Curb shall be constructed in uniform lengths or sections of
20 feet maximum length, except where shorter sections are necessary for
closure of radii or curves, however, no curb section shall be less than
four feet in length. Premolded resilient expansion joint material shall
be placed transverse every 20 feet or between curb sections to the full
curb depth and be cut to conform to the cross sectional area of the
curb. Expansion joint material shall also be provided at points of
tangency to curves or radii, and between the face of curb and sidewalk
or other structures.
5:03.2 — Sidewalks shall be constructed in slab sections of 20 feet
maximum length, except where shorter sections are deemed necessary for
closure of radii or curves. Slab sections shall be separated by
transverse expansion joints filled with premolded resilient expansion
joint material as specified herein, for the full depth of the concrete.
Expansion joints shall also be provided between sidewalks and adjacent
curb, or other structures including but not limited to stormwater
inlets, drainage facilities, intersecting private sidewalks, steps,
porches, buildings, fire hydrants, street light footings and utility
poles. All sidewalk slabs shall be transversely scored at intervals
equal to the sidewalk width, however, in cases where the slabs are
greater than six feet wide, a longitudinal score in the center of the
slab shall be provided in addition to the transverse scoring. Where the
sidewalk surrounds a fire hydrant, utility pole, street light, signpost,
valve box, or other structure, score a block eight inches larger than
the maximum dimensions of the structure. Prior to placing the concrete
around such structures, premolded expansion joint filler, 3/4 inch in
thickness shall be placed around the structure for the full depth of the
concrete in the sidewalk.
5:04 PLACING CONCRETE — Construction of curb and sidewalk improvements
shall be permitted only during the seasonal period beginning April 1, and
ending on November 30 of each year. In addition, concrete shall not be
placed on frozen or saturated subgrade, or when the ambient air
temperature is less than 40° F. All concrete shall be placed in a manner
to prevent segregation of aggregate, and as near to final position as
possible. The depositing of a large quantity at a single point, and
allowing it to flow, or the working of concrete along the forms will not
be permitted. Where steel reinforcement is used, same must be pulled up
into the pour to meet requirements of Section 3:03.
5:05 FINISHING CONCRETE — The top surfaces of all new sidewalks, curbs
and driveway entrances shall be brought to the required elevation, struck
off with a straight edge, and floated. Top surfaces shall be a uniform
true plane. All exposed surfaces of curbs, sidewalks and driveway
entrances shall have an even wood float rubbed finish, free of all
honeycomb and surface defects. Finishing of concrete surfaces shall be
accomplished by wetting the surfaces and rubbing with a carborundum stone
to eliminate irregularities, until uniform color and texture is produced.
Finishing shall be completed within 36 hours after placing the concrete in
the forms. Corners or edges shall be slightly rounded by the use of an
edger having a 1/4 inch radius or a carborundum stone. After the forms are
removed, all irregularities in exposed surfaces shall be corrected
satisfactorily. After removal of the forms, minor honeycombed areas shall
be filled with mortar composed of 1 part of cement and 2 parts of fine
aggregate. Major honeycombed areas will be considered as defective work
and shall be removed and replaced.
SIDEWALK FINISH — The final finish for all walking surfaces shall be a
broom finish applied transversely to the normal walking direction and
providing a normally non-slip surface. The broom finish shall provide a
scoring of the concrete of not less than 1/16 inch in depth. Steel or wood
trowel finishes are not permissible. All edges of sidewalk shall be worked
with an approved edging tool. In no case shall bituminous material of any
kind be used as finished sidewalks nor used to patch, repair or seal
existing concrete sidewalks or crossovers.
5:06. PROTECTING AND CURING CONCRETE — Immediately after finishing, all
concrete shall be cured by either of the following methods: (1) an
approved impervious, light colored or transparent plastic sheeting shall
be placed and maintained in contact with the concrete surface; or (2) an
approved, liquid curing compound meeting PennDOT Publication 408
requirements, shall be sprayed on all concrete surfaces. Curing shall
continue for a minimum of five days after placing and finishing concrete.
Methods of protecting and curing concrete during cool or cold weather
shall be according to PennDOT Publication 408 and shall be subject to the
approval of the Borough Engineer.
5:07 UTILITY SERVICES — Covers on valve boxes, cleanouts, and vents for
utility services to individual properties shall be raised and/or lowered
to the specified elevation. The person, firm or corporation installing the
curb, sidewalk and/or driveway entrances, shall be responsible for
notifying all involved utilities to request adjustment of utility services
as may be required to properly construct the improvements.
5:08 TRAFFIC SIGNS — All traffic signs removed during construction of
curb and sidewalk improvements shall be replaced in kind and at the same
location by the person, firm or corporation performing the installation of
5:09 PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC PROTECTION — Any person, firm, or
corporation grading any sidewalk areas, constructing or repairing any
curbs, sidewalks or driveway entrances, or removing any trees or
shrubbery, or opening or excavating in or under any streets, alleys, or
sidewalk areas, shall place suitable signs, barriers and/or lights so as
to protect the users of streets, alleys, or sidewalk areas in the vicinity
thereof from injury to person or property.
5:10 INSPECTION AND DEFECTIVE WORK — The Borough Engineer or any
authorized Borough Official shall at all times have access to the
construction of curb and sidewalk improvements for the purpose of
observing and inspecting the work. First notice for inspection relative to
concrete pouring of sidewalk and/or curb shall be given to the Borough not
less than 24 hours in advance of the anticipated time of pour. Any
concrete sidewalks, curbs, or driveway entrances which do not conform to
the requirements of these specifications, may be rejected; all defective
work shall be either corrected or removed as specified by the Borough.
5:11 TREES AND SHRUBBERY — The planting of trees of any type within the
grass safety strip between curb and sidewalk or within three feet of the
sidewalk edge, is permitted in the Borough Where trees of any type exist
within the right-of-way of any Borough street, alley, road or cartway, the
constructing or repairing of curb and sidewalk shall be as directed by the
At locations where existing trees along curbs are to remain, if
sufficient space cannot be provided for installation of regulation curb,
steel curb plates shall be used. The plates shall extend a minimum of
seven inches below the street surface. The outside face (street side)
shall be flush with the outside face of curb. The ends of the top of the
plate must be flush with and anchored into the adjoining concrete curb as
per attached detail.
5:12 OBSTRUCTION OF SURFACE DRAINAGE — No person shall fill in solidly
the gutter flow line, generally known as gutter area, with any materials,
at crossovers or at any other points along the curb line, which will block
or divert the normal flow of surface water along established grades and/or
cause obstruction or hazard for vehicles traveling along the curb line.
5:13 BACKFILL AND RESTORATION — After the removal of forms, the curb
and/or sidewalk shall be backfilled evenly in front and back so as not to
displace the curb and/or sidewalk.
Backfill behind the curb shall be made by using select soil material
with no stones larger than two inches in diameter. This backfill shall be
brought to the top of the curb unless the area is to be used as sidewalk.
If no sidewalk is to be placed adjacent to the curb, the top four inches
of backfill shall be free of stones larger than 1/2 inch in diameter and
the surface shall be raked free of stones and seeded with approved grass
seed. Backfill material within roadway and shoulder areas, both existing
and proposed, shall consist of PennDOT No. 2A Crushed Stone Aggregate
compacted by machine or hand tamping. All paved areas disturbed by the
Contractor during curb and/or sidewalk construction shall be restored in
kind. Materials and the manner in which restoration is performed shall be
subject to the approval of the Borough Engineer.
5:14 STAKEOUT AND INSPECTION — The Owner or Contractor shall furnish,
set and maintain grade stakes as required for the installation of curbs
and, where applicable, prepare cut sheets for review by the Borough
Engineer. Inspection during construction and final inspection for
acceptance will be performed by Borough designated personnel.